Ancient Samaria and Jerusalem
Jill Katz on urban anthropology in the capitals of Israel and Judah
Ancient Samaria and Jerusalem had a lot in common in the ninth and eighth centuries B.C.E. Both were part of David and Solomon’s United Kingdom of Israel in the tenth century, and both became capitals when it split into the southern kingdom of Judah and the northern kingdom of Israel. Jerusalem became the capital of Judah, and Samaria, Israel.
Jerusalem and Samaria were also very different. In the Archaeological Views column “Jerusalem and Samaria: An Anthropological Tale of Two Cities” in the May/June 2014 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review, Jill Katz examines how the field of urban anthropology sheds light on the ideological differences between ancient Samaria and Jerusalem.
Urban anthropology examines cities in their social and political contexts. Jill Katz, clinical assistant professor of archaeology at Yeshiva University, explains that “[as] social entities, cities have a variety of social roles, including ideological, political/administrative and economic. Yet the relative importance of these social functions is not random but rather derives from the strength of both the city’s economy and the controlling state.”
In urban anthropology terms, ancient Samaria (Israel) would be considered an administrative city—a city with strong political power and control over the agriculture-dependent economy, governed by leaders with access to great wealth. Katz writes that the administrative city “is a repository of state power but unifies through coercion rather than common ideology.”
Jerusalem lies at the heart of Biblical archaeology. In the free eBook Jerusalem Archaeology: Exposing the Biblical City, learn about the latest finds in the Biblical world’s most vibrant city.
By contrast, Jerusalem (Judah) would fit the model of a regal-ritual city—a city with weak political power and an economy reliant on rural agriculture, but with an ideological status that plays a dominant role. Iron Age Jerusalem was principally a sacred city, its social life oriented around the sacred calendar.
These urban anthropology paradigms, as Jill Katz reveals, help us understand how ancient Samaria and Jerusalem were viewed and valued by their respective inhabitants. When the Assyrians conquered the kingdom of Israel in the late eighth century B.C.E., Samaria was not rebuilt (the site is still not in great shape today). Gone with its state power was the reason for its existence. On the other hand, when the Jews returned to Jerusalem after the Babylonian conquest in 586 B.C.E., the city (which, as Katz notes, “never lost its regal-ritual essence”) was rebuilt and its role as the center of Jewish spiritual and ritual life was restored.
Subscribers: Read the full Archaeological Views column “Jerusalem and Samaria: An Anthropological Tale of Two Cities” by Jill Katz as it appeared in the May/June 2014 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review.
Not a subscriber yet? Join today.
This Bible History Daily feature was originally published on April 30, 2014.
Related reading in Bible History Daily:
Using Ethnographic Analogy for Biblical Archaeology
Was Biblical Israel an Egalitarian Society?
Ancient Israel Through a Social Scientific Lens
Tel ‘Eton Excavations Reveal Possible Judahite Administrative Center
Lachish: Open Access to BAR Articles on Lachish Archaeology
Get more biblical Archaeology: Become a Member
The world of the Bible is knowable. We can learn about the society where the ancient Israelites, and later Jesus and the Apostles, lived through the modern discoveries that provide us clues.
Biblical Archaeology Review is the guide on that fascinating journey. Here is your ticket to join us as we discover more and more about the biblical world and its people.
Each issue of Biblical Archaeology Review features lavishly illustrated and easy-to-understand articles such as:
• Fascinating finds from the Hebrew Bible and New Testament periods
• The latest scholarship by the world’s greatest archaeologists and distinguished scholars
• Stunning color photographs, informative maps, and diagrams
• BAR’s unique departments such as First Person and Strata
• Reviews of the latest books on biblical archaeology
The BAS Digital Library includes:
• 45+ years of Biblical Archaeology Review
• 20+ years of Bible Review online, providing critical interpretations of biblical texts
• 8 years of Archaeology Odyssey online, exploring the ancient roots of the Western world in a scholarly and entertaining way,
• The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land
• Video lectures from world-renowned experts.
• Full online access to 50+ curated Special Collections,
• Four highly acclaimed books, published in conjunction with the Smithsonian Institution: Aspects of Monotheism, Feminist Approaches to the Bible, The Rise of Ancient Israel and The Search for Jesus.
The All-Access membership pass is the way to get to know the Bible through biblical archaeology.